metric modes (iq't) &
 melodic modes (maqmt)
Introduction

 

 
Iq't - Video demonstration by Vince Delgado

Video demonstration of the iq't by Vince Delgado
 
Maqmt - Video demonstration by Ali Jihad Racy

Video demonstration of the maqmt by Ali Jihad Racy
 In the following descriptions of some of the most popular iq't, dum denotes a low, resonant tone and tak denotes a high, crisp tone.
 
            Click on the name of each mode to listen to an example
Maqmt are often understood in terms of scalar units such as tetrachords (sets of 4 notes), which constitute the nucleus of the expanded modes (usually spanning two octaves). The following are five representative maqmt. Traditionally, Rst and Nahawand rest on C, while Bayyti, Hijz, and Sab rest on D.
 
Wahdah
 
Wahid means "one" in Arabic and Wahdah has a single 'dum' at the beginning. The Wahdah is primarily just an initial accent with varying fills, and can exist in various lengths. e.g.:
 
 
 
( 1 ---- | ---- | ---- | ---- 1---- | ---- | ---- | ---- )
dum                                 dum    
 
Rst
 
Rst means "straight" or "right" in Persian. The Rst mode is similar to the major scale but with the 3rd and 7th degrees flattened by, roughly, a 1/4 tone. During descending, the 7th degree is usually fully flattened.
(:half flat):

Rst

 
Masmdi
 
Masmdi consists of two main variants. One is 4 beats long and has a lively character (Masmdi Saghr, which means small Masmdi.) It is fairly common in dance music. The other variant is 8 beats long with a slow, more solemn character (Masmdi Kabr which means big Masmdi.) The following is an example of the Masmdi Kabr:
 
( 1 ---- 2 ---- | ---- 4 ---- 5 ---- | ---- 7 ---- | ----)
dum     dum               tak     dum               tak    
 
Nahawand
 
Nahawand is similar to the harmonic minor scale during ascending and to the natural minor scale during descending:
 
 

Nahawand

 
Sam'i Thaql
 
Sam'i Thaql means "heavy Sam'i" and is commonly heard in both Ottoman and Arab classical musics. It consists of a 10-beat pattern, usually transcribed as 10/8:
 
 
(1 ---- | ---- | ---- 4 ---- | ---- 6 ---- 7 ---- 8 ---- | ---- | ----)
dum                        tak               dum    dum      tak
 
Bayyt
 
Bayyti uses D as its tonic, with the 2nd and 6th degrees flattened by, roughly, a 1/4 tone. During descending, the 6th degree is usually fully flattened:

Bayyti

 
Maqsm
 
Maqsm is one of the most prevelant Arab rhythmic modes, typical of dance music. It consists of a 4-beat pattern, usually transcribed as 4/4. A simple version is:
 
 
( 1 ---- | ---- 2 ---- | ---- 3 ---- | ---- 4 ---- | ---- )
dum      tak               tak     dum               tak
 
Hijz
 
Hijz uses D as tonic. During descending, the 6th degree is usually fully flattened:
 

Hijz

 
Malff
 
Malff is a fast rhythmic pattern, typical of popular and folk music. It is usually transcribed as 2/4 or 4/4 and may accompany lively dancing:
 
 
 
( 1 ---- | ---- 2 ---- | ---- 3 ---- | ---- 4 ---- | ---- )
dum                          tak                          tak    
 
Sab
 
The word Sab refers to the easterly breeze and the mode is often associated with a feeling of sadness. Note that the mode does not include the octave interval:

Sab


 

Introduction The Director The Instruments The Rehearsal The Performance